Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)

2-DIMENSIONAL GROUND RESPONSE ANALYSIS: A REVIEW

mjg.01.2021.35.40

ABSTRACT

2-DIMENSIONAL GROUND RESPONSE ANALYSIS: A REVIEW

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Norazah Arjuna, Azlan Adnan, Nabilah Abu Bakar, Nabila Huda Aizon, Noor Sheena Herayani Harith

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2021.35.40

Earthquake is one of the natural disasters that is caused by ground shaking in soil. Ground response analysis is conducted to obtain the ground motion acceleration on soil surface. Conventional 1-D ground response analysis often suggests that soils are horizontally layered, with little consideration for heterogeneous distribution of soil properties. In this study, literature on 2-D ground response analysis studies has been study as it covers vertically and horizontally waves. Therefore, researcher works were presented in numerical modelling as substantial parameters for studies in near-surface structure. Besides, aspects for future research in the area 2-Dimensional Ground Response Analysis are included. The paper contributes to the under- standing of 2-Dimensional Ground Response Analysis for the application of seismic risk mitigation.
Pages 35-40
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

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mjg.01.2021.31.34

ABSTRACT

DELINEATION OF FAULTS AND CAVITIES USING GRAVITY TECHNIQUES: AN IMPLICATION FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION, SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Johnson C. Ibout, Mfoniso U. Aka, Amarachukwu A. Ibe, Bethrand E. Oguama, Azuanamibebi D. Osu

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2021.31.34

This study was carried out using five digitized aerogravity data to delineate near-surface structural faults, cavities, low-density zones and estimate the mass balance unit in foundations. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed in order to examines the depths to anomalous bodies, density/mass and stratigraphic features such as faults and cavities. The techniques employed were: Source parameter imaging (SPI), 3D Euler deconvolution, forward and inverse modeling. The results of the SPI shallow values range from -5.62 to -53.74 m and deep values range from 3.33 to 120 m. The 3D Euler deconvolution results range from -1892.2 to -1278.3 m for obscure and -12264 to 644.6 m for superficial formations. The forward and inverse modeling result shows the values of depth ranging from 2.5 to 4.8 km, density/mass range from (0.7 to 2.4) x 10-3 kg/m3 and (27 to 133) x 1010 kg of three profiles which is the parameter contrast of the gravity surveys. This shows sequential depths and density/mass contrast between the body of interest and the surrounding material which depicts the presents of faults, sedimentary basins and rock bearing minerals of shale/marble which comprises of air, water and sediment-filled formations. The information from this study has revealed the true nature of the subsurface and this will serve as a guide during road construction.
Pages 31-34
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

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mjg.01.2021.22.30

ABSTRACT

ASSESSMENT OF VADOSE ZONE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AUDIT OF SELECTED CEMETERIES AROUND OSUN STATE, SOUTH-WESTERN PART OF NIGERIA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Charles A. Oyelami, Tesleem O. Kolawole, Gabriel S. Ojo

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2021.22.30

Cemeteries have been identified as a possible source of groundwater and environmental pollution. This may be due to wrong siting of cemeteries, poor soil selection and very thin vadose zone. Over the years, most communities around Osun State experience a number of communicable diseases like dysentery, diarrhea and typhoid, especially after episodes of flash floods. Therefore, this study was carried out to audit the impact of burial practices on the immediate environment viz-a-viz their interaction with both surface and groundwater which forms the main source of potable water for the communities. Method of approach include; assessing possible water contamination, studying the vadose hydrological characteristics as well as studying the geotechnical properties of soils within the vadose zone. Water samples from the vicinity of both cemeteries shows probable contamination with an average pH of 6.19 for Ede and 6.57 for Iragbiji, EC with an average 480μS for Ede and 1210μS for Iragbiji. Biological constituents found within the area include; enterobacteriaceae (salmonella spp., serratia spp., proteus spp., shigella spp.), suggesting likely contamination of both surface and groundwater around the vicinity of the cemeteries. Most cations and anions analysed for (Mg2+, NO3-, SO42-, and PO43-) comply with the WHO standards based on their maximum permissible limits (MPL). Geotechnical investigations revealed that soils within the study areas are largely unsuitable for a standard cemetery due to their high moisture content, poor grading characteristics, low compaction value, poor hydraulic characteristics and shallow water level. The study concluded that cemeteries from both towns have a negative impact on their immediate environment due to poor selection of soil materials (porous and permeable sandy soil) as reflected in the quality of surface and groundwater.
Pages 22-30
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

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mjg.01.2021.12.21

ABSTRACT

THE IMPACT OF SEASONAL CHANGES ON HEAVY MINERALS CONCENTRATION FROM A PART OF EAST COAST OF INDIA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Ali Mohammad, E.N. Dhanamjayarao

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2021.12.21

Pre and post monsoonal changes in the environment have led to a noticeable variation in sediment characteristics, heavy mineral concentrations and their distribution. The current study aimed to find out the effect of seasonal fluctuations on the concentration of heavy minerals along the coast and the variations in sediment textures and distribution. The study has revealed the effect of seasons on the sediments supply and its distribution along coast in the study area. The total heavy minerals concentrations are more in post monsoon than in pre monsoon and the concentration also increases from south to north in parts of the study area because of seasonal circulation of currents from south to north along the shore. The micro textural study of the heavy mineral grains from different locations in the study area revealed the mechanical and chemical erosions on the grain surfaces.
Pages 12-21
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

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mjg.01.2021.06.11

ABSTRACT

THE INTEGRATION OF GIS, AHP, AND REMOTE SENSING METHODS FOR POTENTIAL AREAS GROUNDWATER: CASE STUDY FOR PONTIAN DISTRICT, JOHOR, MALAYSIA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Mohd Sahrul Syukri Narimah Samat, Mohd Hasmadi Ismail

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2021.06.11

In Malaysia, production and conservation of groundwater are essential to the ecosystem’s climate and sustainability. The decline of groundwater level data is a related problem for managing water supplies in the Pontian District, Johor, particularly in rural areas. With demand for household water, agriculture and industrial use is still increasing. Studies-based Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) have gained more advantages in groundwater exploration as it is rapid knowledge about the research and development tool. Therefore, the present study has conducted an example of mapping potential groundwater zones in the Pontian District, Johor, and assessing the factors leading to explore future groundwater opportunities. To identify possible groundwater areas, RS data and GIS are being used, and the data collected by the Department of Mineral and Geoscience Malaysia (JMG). The present study utilized integration between GIS through analytical hierarchy process techniques (AHP). Five different maps were prepared and studied for the potential groundwater area, such as Roughness, Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Elevation, Curvature, and Slope. Weights in all the thematic maps assigned to each class using the AHP method on their characteristics and potential water capability. The production accuracy has checked using groundwater prospects information, and the process is approximately 87.5 percent accurate. The resulting map of groundwater capacity was graded into five groups-very good, good, moderate, low, and very low. The analysis shows that about 57.3 percent of the area occupies the low potential groundwater area. The potential zones of good and moderate groundwater are observed in 1.28 percent and 18.94 percent, respectively. Only in minimal areas is the area under perfect potential areas registered. The results from this study can be useful in the preparation and growth planning of related agencies in Malaysia, for possible groundwater exploration to provide a fast system and cost reduction and a shorter period.
Pages 06-11
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

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mjg.01.2021.01.05

ABSTRACT

IS MAKRAN A SEPARATE MICROPLATE? A SHORT REVIEW

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author:Muhammad Imran Hafeez Abbasi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2021.01.05

Makran Subduction Zone (MZS) is important as this region lies on both sides of the border of Iran and Pakistan along the coastline. Makran Subduction complex has pervasive seismicity and diverse focal mechanism solutions and being in the vicinity of Triple Junction where three major Tectonic plates; Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates are connecting. Both of Chabahar and Gwadar ports are located in this vicinity, on which China is investing for CPEC, Belt and Road Initiative. The whole world is looking at these projects of Makran, as this may define and transform the future of trade. Hence Geoscience point of view is notable as well in consideration for the successful execution of these projects. Several Microplates/blocks have been proposed around the vicinity MSZ and Indian-Eurasian Plate boundary including the Ormara microplate, Lut Block, Helmand Block, and Pakistan-Iran Makran microplate (PIMM). The purpose of this review is to shed light on PIMM. Despite previous researches related to Makran, still many researchers are working to solve puzzles related to the complexity of MSZ. It is divided into Eastern and Western Makran due to seismicity and North to South into four parts based on stratigraphy, thrusts and folds. This review aims to give suggestions for the hypothesis on PIMM which was inferred as a separate microplate.
Pages 01-05
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

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mjg.02.2020.96.102

ABSTRACT

APPLICABILITY OF THE ROCK MASS RATING (RMR) SYSTEM FOR THE TRUSMADI FORMATION AT SABAH, MALAYSIA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Rodeano Roslee, Jeffery Anak Pirah, Mohd Fauzi Zikiri, Ahmad Nazrul Madri

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.02.2020.96.102

Rock Mass Classification Systems (RMCS) can be of considerable use in the initial stage of a project when little or no detailed information is available. There is a large number of RMCS developed for general purposes but also for specific applications such as Rock Quality Designation (RQD), Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Rock Structure Rating (RSR), Geological Strength Index (GSI), Slope Mass Rating (SMR), etc. In this paper, we present the results of the applicability of the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) System for the Trusmadi Formation in Sabah, Malaysia. The RMR system is a RMCS incorporated with five (5) parameters: Strength of intact rock material, Rock Quality Designation (RQD), Spacing of joints, Condition of joints, and Groundwater conditions. A total of ten (10) locations were selected on the basis of exposures of the lithology and slope condition of the Trusmadi Formation. Trusmadi Formation is Paleocene to Eocene in aged. The Trusmadi Formation generally shows two major structural orientations NW-SE and NE-SW. Trusmadi Formation is characterized by the present of dark colour argillaceous rocks, siltstone and thin-bedded turbidite in well-stratified sequence. Some of the Trusmadi Formation rocks have been metamorphosed to low grade of the greenish-schist facies; the sediment has become slate, phyllite and metarenite. Cataclastic rocks are widespread and occur as black phyllonite enclosing arenitic and lutitic boudins with diameter up to a meter or demarcating thin to thicker fault zones or as flaser zones with hardly any finer grain matrix or as zones of closely spaced fractures. Quartz and calcite veins are quite widespread within the crack deformed on sandstone beds. The shale is dark grey when fresh but changes light grey to brownish when weathered. The RMR system for 10 outcrops ranges from 33.0 to 50.0 and its classified as “Fair” (Class III) to “Poor” (Class IV) rocks. The Fair Rock (Class III) recommended that the excavation should be top heading and bench 1.5 m – 3 m advance in the top heading. Support should be commencing after each blast and complete support 10 m from face. Rock bolts should be systematic with 4 m long spaced 1.5 m – 2 m in crown and walls with wire mesh in crown. Shotcrete should be 50 mm – 100 mm in crown and 30 mm in sides. While for the Poor Rock (Class IV), the excavation should be top heading and bench 1.0 m – 1.5 m advance in top heading. Support should be installed concurrently with excavation, 10 m from face. Rock bolt should be systematic with 4 m – 5 m long, spaced 1.5 m – 1.5 m in crown and walls with wire mesh. Shotcrete of 100 m – 150 mm in crown and 100 mm in sides. The steel sets should be light to medium ribs spaced 1.5 m only when required.
Pages 96-102
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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mjg.01.2020.43.53

ABSTRACT

CLIMATOLOGY IN BARISHAL, BANGLADESH: A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF TEMPERATURE, RAINFALL, WIND SPEED AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY DATA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Md Abdullah Salman and Faisal Ahmed

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2020.43.53

The Climatological data (temperature, rainfall, wind speed & relative humidity) recorded at Barishal divisional meteorological station and Bangladesh Meteorological Departments over the period of 1961-2019 is used for an assessment of climatological aspects, climate change and the variability of Barishal in Bangladesh. The trend of variant of yearly average maximum and minimum temperature has been found to be increasing at a rate of 0.0055 ºC & 0.0087 ºC/year. Analysis of rainfall data observed that for majority of stations, the total rainfall showed decreasing trend for pre-monsoon, monsoon and winter seasons, while little increasing trend was observed for the post-monsoon. Calculated annual total rainfall in Barishal was showed declining at the rate of -0.18488 mm/year and annual average wind speed was increasing by 0.001783 m/s per year. Likewise, yearly average relative humidity observed to be abrupt rising at a rate of 0.342975 per year with average of 70.855 at 2 meters.
Pages 43-53
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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mjg.02.2020.90.95

ABSTRACT

HYDROLOGIC ASSESSMENT OF FOOD USING SWAT AS GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES IN THE CATCHMENT AREA OF TERENGGANU MALAYSIA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Ibrahim Sufiyan, Magaji J.I, A.T. Ogah

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.02.2020.90.95

Risks and hazards are two important issues currently threatening humanity and the environment. Flood has claimed many lives and destroyed properties in Malaysia and Africa and Nigeria. It is global catastrophe. The application of geospatial science is, therefore, very important advantages that it offers solutions to flood. This stud uses of Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Digital Elevation Model (ASTER-DEM), and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in visualizing floods disaster risk. The whole catchment area of Terengganu has been delineated. The 25 sub-basins have been identified and the flood risk zones have been modeled. The complete watersheds are characterized by different sub-basins and Hydrologic Respond Units (HRUs) which can be viewed in 3D environment.
Pages 90-95
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

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mjg.01.2020.38.42

ABSTRACT

SEISMO – IONOSPHERIC INDUCED PERTURBATIONS PRIOR TO THE SEPTEMBER 28, 2007 M7.5 NORTHERN MARIANA U.S.A. GEOQUAKE FROM GPS, TEC AND DEMETER DATA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Jewel E. Thomas

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2020.38.42

Data from DEMETER (IAP and ISL sensors) and GPS (TEC), were used to decipher variations of electron density, electron temperature and ion density within the seismogenic zone of a seismic event that occurred on September 28, 2007 at Northern Mariana U.S.A, through statistical analysis. The study revealed both pre and post ionospheric perturbations from both sets of data. The observed anomalous variations were screened for false alarm using the geomagnetic indices of kp and Dst. It was observed that the abnormal TEC on -10, – 7, -3 and -2 days occurred under quiet geomagnetic conditions while all pre-seismic (-15, -10, – 9 -7 days) ionospheric variations from the DEMETER data were also obtained during quiet geomagnetic conditions suggesting them to be seismo-ionospheric induced perturbations. Interestingly, the perturbations on -10 and -7 days were simultaneously observed from both GPS and DEMETER datasets under quiet geomagnetic ionospheric conditions offering a strong pointer to the impending geo-quake.
Pages 38-42
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

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