Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)

UTILIZING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TECHNOLOGY AND BOREHOLE LOGGING FOR DETERMINATION OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL AND VULNERABILITY IN OGBA–NDONI–EGBEMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, RIVERS STATE, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

mjg.02.2024.80.87

ABSTRACT

UTILIZING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TECHNOLOGY AND BOREHOLE LOGGING FOR DETERMINATION OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL AND VULNERABILITY IN OGBA–NDONI–EGBEMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, RIVERS STATE, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: N.B. Osuamkpe, I. Tamunobereton-ari, A.R.C. Amakiri, J. Amoniah

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.02.2024.80.87

Geoelectrical resistivity technology (GRT) was utilized to determine the potential and the protective capacity of the groundwater system in Ogba–Ndoni–Egbema Local Government Area (ONELGA) of Rivers State, Southern Nigeria. The deliverable of the research work was to determine groundwater potential zones and vulnerability by using vertical electrical sounding (VES) and borehole (BH) logs. GRT method applied Schlumberger 1-D vertical electrical sounding (VES). ABEM Terameter SAS 300 B resistivity meter was used to acquire 10 VES data while IPI2Win software tool was used to estimate the primary geo-electric indices. Lithostratigraphic analyses from two borehole (BH) logs further elucidate aquifer characteristics, facilitating the identification of desirable aquifer layers for groundwater storage and transmission. The best shallowest aquifer for the first BH log is fine to medium sand (whitish) with a thickness of 21m and ranges from 9m to 30 m. The aquifer in the second BH log is the whitish medium coarse sand, which is 9m thick and is situated between depths of 6 to 15m. Primary and secondary geoelectric parameters were employed to generate maps of hydrodynamic properties for the shallowest aquifer unit widely exploited in the region, enabling efficient groundwater management. The resistivity values for the most superficial aquifer varied between 265 and 919 Ωm and, the thickness of this layer ranged from 6.9 to 26.7 meters, with depths spanning from 8.6 to 43.3 meters. The findings revealed a range of potential index parameters such as transmissivity (2.366-5.734 m2/day), transverse resistance (1828.5-23576.1 Ωm2), and hydraulic conductivity (0.205-0.480 m/day), indicating favorable groundwater potential but inadequate protective capability, as indicated by the longitudinal conductance index (0.013109-0.030237 Siemens). Given the significant population residing in the local government due to its economic activities, it is recommended to implement well-managed waste disposal measures to prevent the infiltration of leachates as well as other organic and inorganic wastes into the naturally vulnerable underlying aquifer units.
Pages 80-87
Year 2024
Issue 2
Volume 8

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mjg.01.2024.82.92

ABSTRACT

GEOSPATIAL CROP YIELD MODELLING IN FUTA FARM

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Elufisan Paul Tomilolaa, Aroge Sunday Kayodeb*, Odeyemi Felix Gbengab, Titilade Adedeji Samuel

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2024.82.92

This research aims to geospatially model crop yield in a FUTA farm to enhance productivity and management practices. Primary and secondary data were collected for seven planting seasons (2014-2021), including maize seeds, NPK fertilizers, urea used, harvesting dates, and yield measurements. GNSS observation was used to determine planting boundaries, while satellite imagery and climate records were used for secondary data. The study examined the vegetation indices (NDVI and GCI) of the farm between 2012 and 2022. Then, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to model crop yield in the study area using the primary and secondary data and the NDVI, and GCI values. Result showed that Vegetative indices (NDVI and GCI) showed an increase between 2014 and 2016, while between 2017 and 2019, there was a decrease. In 2021, there was an increase in vegetative indices values, indicating healthier crops. The decline in crop yield between 2017 and 2019 was not coincidental, but it is believed that the decline in crop health is responsible for the corresponding reduction. The ANN model had a regression coefficient of 0.73282, and the coefficient of determination was 0.5176. The maximum and minimum crop yield values were 24.7 and 25.26 in 2016, and 5 and 4.01 in 2018, respectively. It was observed from that the minimum value of difference is -9.883708757 while the maximum value of difference is 1.451557122. The root means square error (RMSE) and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) are 0.4296 and 0.2947, respectively. Modelled crop yield values were close to actual yield values, except for 2017 when a large difference was observed due to herdsmen invasion into the school farm. Since, the model showed close correlations with actual yield values, making it a recommended model for predicting crop yield in the study area.
Pages 82-92
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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mjg.02.2024.76.79

ABSTRACT

HIGHWAY GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF QUARTZITE-DERIVED LATERITIC SOIL FROM IJEBU-IJESA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Adeoye Aderemi Sunday, Talabi Abel Ojo, Abubakar Hussain Olanrewaju, Adeniran Matthew Ademola, and Adejumo Temitope Kazeem

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.02.2024.76.79

The highway geotechnical properties of quartzite-derived lateritic soil from Ijebu-Ijesa were investigated with a view to determining the suitability or otherwise for flexible highway construction.The field investigations included the study of the geological and geotechnical settings of the area and collection of four bulk samples within the study area. The laboratory investigation procedures involved the use of air dried sample which were subjected to laboratory classification tests including; grain size distribution and consistency limits (liquid limit and plasticity limit). Other engineering tests often employed in evaluating highway sub-grade material which include Compaction test, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Unconfined Compression test (UCS), in accordance with British Standard 1377 (1990) with some modification where necessary were also conducted. Results of engineering tests revealed that the specific gravity of the soil ranges from 2.32 to 3.10. The results of grain size distribution analysis revealed that the soil is well graded. The amount of fines of the soil samples range from 28.7% to 35.55%.The liquid limit for the soil samples ranges from 28.5% to 35.40%.Casagrande chart classification showed that the soil samples have low to medium plasticity. The maximum dry density ranges from 1850Kg/m3 to 1890Kg/m3 with their optimum moisture contents ranging from 13.08% to 17.98%. Unsoaked California Bearing Ratio of the soil ranges from 0.75% to5.3%.Unconfined Compressive Strength of the soil ranges from 132.18KN/m2 to 135.00KN/m2 and 1200.50KN/m2 to 1640.92KN/m2for uncured and cured respectively. Findings from this study indicate that the soil is suitable to be used as subgrade material in the construction of flexible pavement.
Pages 76-79
Year 2024
Issue 2
Volume 8

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mjg.02.2024.69.75

ABSTRACT

FOCAL MECHANISM SOLUTIONS AND SEISMIC IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EASTERN MAKRAN: A 30-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Muhammad Imran Hafeez Abbasi, Nangyal Ghani Khan, Faizan Khan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.02.2024.69.75

The Makran Subduction Zone, straddling the nothern Arabian Sea along the borders of Pakistan and Iran, represents one of the most seismically complex regions on Earth, where the Arabian, Eurasian, and Indian plates converge. This study delves into the seismic intricacies of Eastern Makran, an area delineated by a labyrinth of tectonic demarcations including the Zendan, Jiroft, and Ornach-Nal faults, to uncover the underpinnings of its seismicity through an analysis of focal mechanism solutions (FMS) for earthquakes occurring between 1990 and 2019. Utilizing the Kikuchi and Kanamori method for modeling teleseismic P-waves and their surface reflections, this research filters through the data, discarding those compromised by noise, to present a clear picture of seismic activity ranging in magnitude from 4.0 to 7.8 Mw. Contrary to the expected prevalence of major earthquakes, findings reveal a rarity of such events in Eastern Makran, suggesting a nuanced interaction between the Indian and Eurasian plates marked by anticlockwise rotation. This rotation potentially fosters the isolation of microplates, hinting at a dynamic interplay of tectonic forces. Our comprehensive 30-year perspective provides new insights into the focal depths and fault plane solutions, contributing to a better understanding of the seismic behavior and tectonic mechanisms governing the Eastern Makran Subduction Zone.
Pages 69-75
Year 2024
Issue 2
Volume 8

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mjg.01.2024.76.81

ABSTRACT

BATHYMETRY AND SILTATION ANALYSIS OF ABULOMA INLAND WATER, RIVERS STATE

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Basil D. D., Stanley Eke, Tariah Victor

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2024.76.81

Siltation, the accumulation of sediment particles in aquatic environments, poses significant challenges to water resource management, ecological health, and infrastructure maintenance. To effectively monitor and manage siltation, accurate data acquisition methods are crucial. Bathymetric data offer high-resolution spatial data, allowing for precise identification of sediment accumulation zones and the tracking of sediment transport pathways. This study focuses on siltation monitoring within an inland water channel: Abuloma River, using the bathymetric surveying data, which involves measuring the depth and morphology of water bodies. The bathymetric data was acquired using MK III single beam dual frequency echo sounders, processed and analyzed using Qinsy software. ArcGIS software was used to quantify sediment deposition rates, distribution, and changes in underwater topography. The result of the study shows a siltation rate of 762.249m3/year. This study underscores the importance of bathymetric surveying as a powerful tool in siltation monitoring efforts. It emphasizes the need for interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists, engineers, ecologists, and GIS specialists to effectively analyze and interpret the collected data. Ultimately, siltation monitoring using bathymetric surveying data contributes to a holistic approach in managing sediment-related challenges and promoting sustainable water resource management practices.
Pages 76-81
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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mjg.01.2024.59.75

ABSTRACT

UTILISING 2-D RESISTIVITY IMAGING TOMOGRAPHY IN INVESTIGATING STRUCTURAL FAILURE IN SOME BUILDINGS IN ADANKOLO CAMPUS OF FEDERAL UNIVERSITY LOKOJA, NIGERIAN NORTH CENTRAL AREA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Abdulbariu Ibrahim, Jafaru Nasiru, Mu’awiya Baba Aminu, Ayinla Habeeb Ayoola, Mojeed Olaniyi Fasasi, Yinka Benjamin Oluwadiya

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2024.59.75

One of the most used geophysical tools for characterization of the near surface is electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The 2D resistivity survey was conducted along ten (10) buildings in Federal University Lokoja (Fulokoja), Adonkolo Campus. Dipole-dipole electrode configuration was conducted for data collection. Enhancing of measured field and calculated apparent resistivity details/data and interpretation of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) were generated using RES2DINV software which reveal a change in soil resistivity and type. From the result it is observed that the soil is made up of weathered migmatite rock which exist in layers of low resistivity, intermediate resistivity and high resistivity zone. The low resistivity zone is the uncompacted soil which provide an unstable foundation for the building while intermediate and high resistivity zone representing the fairly compacted to compacted soil which provide stable foundations for the buildings. The presence of clayey materials and oversaturated soil around the central part of the campus is the cause of the uneven ground settlement underneath these buildings causing the apparent cracks on some superstructures. The foundation of structures and buildings should be strengthened by mixing of the soil with gravels to enhance stability. Proper electrical resistivity survey and soil penetration test on the soil should be carried out prior to construction of buildings in the campus.
Pages 59-75
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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mjg.02.2024.60.68

ABSTRACT

APPLICATION OF WIRELINE DATA IN PETROLEUM EXPLORATION TO DELINEATE THE HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF TERTIARY SANDSTONE RESERVOIRS OF NIGER DELTA OIL FIELD.

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Dahiru, Danjuma Muhammeda, Habiba, Danjuma Mohammedb, Abdullahi, Saiduc, Abdullahi, Aliyu Itarid, and Mu’awiya, Baba Aminue

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.02.2024.60.68

Lying somewhere between Production Geology, Operations, Seismology, Reservoir Engineering and Production Technology, petrophysics plays a key role in ensuring the successful development of a well, and the characterization of a reservoir. The exploration of hydrocarbon exploration in Niger Delta spans over
several decades althogh the exploration exercise is gradually shifting to the deep offshore, the channel sand deposits is targeted as the main exploration point for both the onshore and offshore exercise. This research paper reiterates the relevance of petrophysical analysis of well log data in establishing the hydrocarbon potential of sandstone reservoirs of Niger Delta Basin. The well logs data was obtained in electronic version (LAS file), the quality checks, accuracy, content policy and confidentiality remained the right of Department of Petroleum Resources (D.P.R.) Nigeria. The wireline data comprises of gamma ray, resisitiviy (deep), sonic, and neutron logs, intergrated with the calculated field curves which include archies water saturation (SW), total porosity (PHiT), bulk-volume water (BVW) and shale volume (VSH), from two exploratory wells namely EMI-04 and EMI-05. The interpretation for the petrophyiscal analysis was conducted using Schlumberger’s PETREL E&P software 2013, while the field recorded logs and the calculated curves were all presented in different tracks Several hydrocarbon bearing intervals were delineated from the interpretation of these suites of wireline data. The hydrocarbon bearing intervals across the two wells were categorized into three distinctive reservoirs, Reservoir A, encountered between intervals 2610ft and 3068ft, has an average pay thickness of 40.4ft, Reservoir B encountered along interval 4011ft to 4690ft has an average pay thickness of 16ft, reservoir C encountered between interval 5305ft and 6930ft with an average pay thickness of 61ft. The average hydrocarbon saturation, effective porosity and bulk-volume water for reservoir A, B and C, are 52%, 32% and 0.0580; 35 %, 28% and 0.2096; and 42%, 22% and 0.1572 respectively. The values of effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation calculated for the hydrocarbon bearing zones are good enough for commercial accumulation and production of hydrocarbon. The petrophysical analysis of these reservoirs indicated that, the reservoirs could be highly productive. Due to the limited availability of logs, two types of fluids; water and hydrocarbon could be delineated.
Pages 60-68
Year 2024
Issue 2
Volume 8

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mjg.02.2024.54.59

ABSTRACT

A REAL TIME PERFORMANCE BASED MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE EARTHQUAKE EARLY WARNING ALARMS USING A MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUE

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Mukesh Kumar Gupta, Brijesh Kumar

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.02.2024.54.59

Earthquake early warning systems have become vital for minimizing damage from seismic events. However, their automated detection capabilities need strengthening to provide real-time alerts. Current algorithms have limitations in identification of P-waves and magnitude estimation, impacting warning lead times. Additionally, existing single-algorithm dependent systems are prone to errors. There is a need for standardized practices to optimally select and combine algorithms. Machine learning and artificial intelligence show promise to make detection more robust. Models trained on diverse seismological data can learn complex patterns to detect emergent P-waves earlier and refine magnitude assessment. However, research exploring such data driven approaches within early warning systems is limited. This aims to address this research gap and strengthen automated detection capabilities. It proposes a machine learning model integrating multiple existing algorithms using a novel prioritization framework. Performance is evaluated on real earthquake datasets through simulations vis-à-vis single algorithms. By developing an optimized multi-algorithm framework, hence it seeks to improve warning lead times and reliability. The model is designed considering operational requirements of early warning systems. Comparison of results with past methods helps evaluate contributions to the field. Overall, the research strives to enhance seismic hazard mitigation through more efficient automated detection in early warning networks.
Pages 54-59
Year 2024
Issue 2
Volume 8

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mjg.01.2024.46.58

ABSTRACT

INVESTIGATION OF THE ZETA FIELD RESERVOIR ROCK AND FLUID TRANSPORT
PROPERTIES, NIGER DELTA BASIN

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Atat, J.G., Umoren, E.B*., Akpabio, I.O., Akankpo, A.O., Enoh, R.E.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2024.38.45

The study on petrophysical properties have been conducted. The wells (X1, X2 and X3) in the Zeta Field may be developed if the result of investigation is appreciable as it is necessary for well development, well bore stability and could be used to characterize oil reservoirs. Microsoft excel was adequate for the data processing and analysis. The petrophysical properties results for well X1 include average values of water saturation, porosity and permeability as 0.30 (30%), 19% and 10.36 millidarcy. This means that about 70% hydrocarbon saturation could be available with adequate connectivity of pores for accumulation and migration of reservoir fluids. For well X2, the average is 0.16 (which is 16%), 30%, and 21.54 millidarcy respectively. Therefore, the hydrocarbon saturation is about 84% with a very good class of porous formation and therefore can store and transmit fluid. The average noted from well X3 for water saturation, porosity and permeability correspond to 0.27 (27%), 24% and 13.42 millidarcy. The average results of the other properties studied include Shear Modulus, Lame`s Constant, and Young`s Modulus as 9.20 x 109 N/m2, 5.0 x 1013 N/m2 and 2.12 x 1010 N/m2 ,respectively from well X1. Also, the average obtained from well X2 are 3.94 x 109 N/m2 for Lame`s Constant, 5.82 x 109 N/m2 for Shear Modulus and 1.34 x 1010 N/m2 for young`s modulus. Well X3 findings have the average results as Shear Modulus = 7.64 x 109 N/m2, Lame`s Constant = 5.18 x 109 N/m2 and young`s modulus = 1.77 x 1010 N/m2. These results indicate that the studied reservoir formation is brittle and wells could stand a test of time. This information implies that the hydrocarbon saturation is about 73%, highly porous and has the ability to accumulate and migrate fluids. The results of their dependent parameters are presented in section 4. Properties like acoustic impedance and shear impedance have an average of 7.5 x 106 and 4.6 x 106 for well X1, 5.7 x 106 ,and 3.5 x 106 for Well X2; 6.7 x 106 and 4.1 x 106 ,for Well X3 respectively.
Pages 46-58
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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mjg.01.2024.38.45

ABSTRACT

DETERMINATION OF PERMEABILITY AND VELOCITY INFORMATION OF OIL RESERVOIR USING WELL LOG DATA (S-FIELD)

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Umoren, E.B., Atat, J.G., Akankpo, A.O., Uzoewulu, R.O.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2024.38.45

Permeability information is a necessary requirement to assess the migration and accumulation of fluids in the reservoir. Three well data (A, B, C) were available for this investigation. Microsoft Excel was used for the analysis and computation of results. Spurious values were noted and removed. Porosity was first determined and their average results for Wells A, B and C are 17.26604%, 22.83019% and 13.35095% respectively. These values of porosity indicate the reservoir classes of Wells A, B and C as good, good and fair correspondingly. This information enables the determination of average permeability of wells A, B and C corresponding to 80975.24 Darcy, 105407.1 Darcy and 65580.38 Darcy. Therefore, the reservoir of wells A and B are highly porous and permeable for the storage and migration of fluids. They should be developed for hydrocarbon exploration. This is because the porosity and permeability values of these wells are reasonable as they have met the standard. However, well C is permeable but not reasonably porous as it belongs to a fair class. The velocity information would give account of the rock elastic properties in terms of strength.
Pages 38-45
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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