Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)

BATHYMETRY AND SILTATION ANALYSIS OF ABULOMA INLAND WATER, RIVERS STATE

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mjg.01.2024.82.92

ABSTRACT

GEOSPATIAL CROP YIELD MODELLING IN FUTA FARM

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Elufisan Paul Tomilolaa, Aroge Sunday Kayodeb*, Odeyemi Felix Gbengab, Titilade Adedeji Samuel

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2024.82.92

This research aims to geospatially model crop yield in a FUTA farm to enhance productivity and management practices. Primary and secondary data were collected for seven planting seasons (2014-2021), including maize seeds, NPK fertilizers, urea used, harvesting dates, and yield measurements. GNSS observation was used to determine planting boundaries, while satellite imagery and climate records were used for secondary data. The study examined the vegetation indices (NDVI and GCI) of the farm between 2012 and 2022. Then, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to model crop yield in the study area using the primary and secondary data and the NDVI, and GCI values. Result showed that Vegetative indices (NDVI and GCI) showed an increase between 2014 and 2016, while between 2017 and 2019, there was a decrease. In 2021, there was an increase in vegetative indices values, indicating healthier crops. The decline in crop yield between 2017 and 2019 was not coincidental, but it is believed that the decline in crop health is responsible for the corresponding reduction. The ANN model had a regression coefficient of 0.73282, and the coefficient of determination was 0.5176. The maximum and minimum crop yield values were 24.7 and 25.26 in 2016, and 5 and 4.01 in 2018, respectively. It was observed from that the minimum value of difference is -9.883708757 while the maximum value of difference is 1.451557122. The root means square error (RMSE) and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) are 0.4296 and 0.2947, respectively. Modelled crop yield values were close to actual yield values, except for 2017 when a large difference was observed due to herdsmen invasion into the school farm. Since, the model showed close correlations with actual yield values, making it a recommended model for predicting crop yield in the study area.
Pages 82-92
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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mjg.02.2024.69.75

ABSTRACT

FOCAL MECHANISM SOLUTIONS AND SEISMIC IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EASTERN MAKRAN: A 30-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Muhammad Imran Hafeez Abbasi, Nangyal Ghani Khan, Faizan Khan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.02.2024.69.75

The Makran Subduction Zone, straddling the nothern Arabian Sea along the borders of Pakistan and Iran, represents one of the most seismically complex regions on Earth, where the Arabian, Eurasian, and Indian plates converge. This study delves into the seismic intricacies of Eastern Makran, an area delineated by a labyrinth of tectonic demarcations including the Zendan, Jiroft, and Ornach-Nal faults, to uncover the underpinnings of its seismicity through an analysis of focal mechanism solutions (FMS) for earthquakes occurring between 1990 and 2019. Utilizing the Kikuchi and Kanamori method for modeling teleseismic P-waves and their surface reflections, this research filters through the data, discarding those compromised by noise, to present a clear picture of seismic activity ranging in magnitude from 4.0 to 7.8 Mw. Contrary to the expected prevalence of major earthquakes, findings reveal a rarity of such events in Eastern Makran, suggesting a nuanced interaction between the Indian and Eurasian plates marked by anticlockwise rotation. This rotation potentially fosters the isolation of microplates, hinting at a dynamic interplay of tectonic forces. Our comprehensive 30-year perspective provides new insights into the focal depths and fault plane solutions, contributing to a better understanding of the seismic behavior and tectonic mechanisms governing the Eastern Makran Subduction Zone.
Pages 69-75
Year 2024
Issue 2
Volume 8

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mjg.01.2024.59.75

ABSTRACT

UTILISING 2-D RESISTIVITY IMAGING TOMOGRAPHY IN INVESTIGATING STRUCTURAL FAILURE IN SOME BUILDINGS IN ADANKOLO CAMPUS OF FEDERAL UNIVERSITY LOKOJA, NIGERIAN NORTH CENTRAL AREA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Abdulbariu Ibrahim, Jafaru Nasiru, Mu’awiya Baba Aminu, Ayinla Habeeb Ayoola, Mojeed Olaniyi Fasasi, Yinka Benjamin Oluwadiya

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2024.59.75

One of the most used geophysical tools for characterization of the near surface is electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The 2D resistivity survey was conducted along ten (10) buildings in Federal University Lokoja (Fulokoja), Adonkolo Campus. Dipole-dipole electrode configuration was conducted for data collection. Enhancing of measured field and calculated apparent resistivity details/data and interpretation of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) were generated using RES2DINV software which reveal a change in soil resistivity and type. From the result it is observed that the soil is made up of weathered migmatite rock which exist in layers of low resistivity, intermediate resistivity and high resistivity zone. The low resistivity zone is the uncompacted soil which provide an unstable foundation for the building while intermediate and high resistivity zone representing the fairly compacted to compacted soil which provide stable foundations for the buildings. The presence of clayey materials and oversaturated soil around the central part of the campus is the cause of the uneven ground settlement underneath these buildings causing the apparent cracks on some superstructures. The foundation of structures and buildings should be strengthened by mixing of the soil with gravels to enhance stability. Proper electrical resistivity survey and soil penetration test on the soil should be carried out prior to construction of buildings in the campus.
Pages 59-75
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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mjg.02.2024.54.59

ABSTRACT

A REAL TIME PERFORMANCE BASED MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE EARTHQUAKE EARLY WARNING ALARMS USING A MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUE

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Mukesh Kumar Gupta, Brijesh Kumar

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.02.2024.54.59

Earthquake early warning systems have become vital for minimizing damage from seismic events. However, their automated detection capabilities need strengthening to provide real-time alerts. Current algorithms have limitations in identification of P-waves and magnitude estimation, impacting warning lead times. Additionally, existing single-algorithm dependent systems are prone to errors. There is a need for standardized practices to optimally select and combine algorithms. Machine learning and artificial intelligence show promise to make detection more robust. Models trained on diverse seismological data can learn complex patterns to detect emergent P-waves earlier and refine magnitude assessment. However, research exploring such data driven approaches within early warning systems is limited. This aims to address this research gap and strengthen automated detection capabilities. It proposes a machine learning model integrating multiple existing algorithms using a novel prioritization framework. Performance is evaluated on real earthquake datasets through simulations vis-à-vis single algorithms. By developing an optimized multi-algorithm framework, hence it seeks to improve warning lead times and reliability. The model is designed considering operational requirements of early warning systems. Comparison of results with past methods helps evaluate contributions to the field. Overall, the research strives to enhance seismic hazard mitigation through more efficient automated detection in early warning networks.
Pages 54-59
Year 2024
Issue 2
Volume 8

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mjg.02.2024.47.53

ABSTRACT

PETROLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF 1.065 GA ZIRCONU-PB AGE OF MIGMATITE-GNEISS IN THE BASEMENT COMPLEX OF IDANRE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Akinola Oluwatoyin Olagoke, Adeoye Aderemi Sunday

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.02.2024.47.53

This research investigates and report zircon U-pb age of a migmatite-gneiss in Idanre, southwestern Nigeria and the petrological implications of this U-Pb age. Field geology reveals Idanre migmatite isa diatexite withnebulitic structures and the gneiss,a metatexite with perverse deformation. The migmatite-gneiss which forms the country rockis a low-lying geomorphologic unitintruded by granite plutons and batholiths. Zircon grains recovered from the migmatite-gneiss have variable sizes and morphology. Geochemicalinvestigation of the zircon revealed Uranium contents range between 80.838 to 116.736 ppm, Th contents between 25.647 ppm and 38.227 ppm while Th/U ratio falls between 0.299 and 0.365. 206Pb/207Pb age of the migmatite-gneiss ranges from 1051 to 1082 Ma with weighted average 1065.1 ± 7.1 Ma (MSWD = 0.28).The age of migmatite-gneiss fallsoutside the Archean-Early Proterozoic (3200-1600 Ma) age bracket reported for migmatite-gneissin other parts of Nigeria.Even though, the 1.065 Ga age of the migmatite-gneissis comparableto granite-gneiss from central Zambezi which crystallized around 1005–1018 million years ago and Phyllite from the Maru schist belt of north central Nigeria which yielded 1110 Ma.However,the migmatite-gneiss age is uncommonin neighbouring Pan-African belt, it is older than the Bayudian event (~0.92 Ga) of the Bayuda Desert of Sudan. This suggests the Idanre migmatite-gneiss probably represents anatectic product of yet another ancient Archean protolith.
Pages 47-53
Year 2024
Issue 2
Volume 8

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mjg.02.2023.173.179

ABSTRACT

ESTIMATION OF SHALLOW WATER BATHYMETRY ALONG THE NORTHERN COAST OF BAY OF BENGAL: A REMOTE SENSING-BASED APPROACH

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Md. Abid Hasan, Rafid Fayyaz, Mahfujur Rahman, Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Atikul Islam, Shamiha Shafinaz Shreya

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.02.2023.173.179

Bathymetric information is vital for navigational safety and is utilized for many more activities. Remote sensing data and satellite images are widely used these days to determine shallow coastal areas’ bathymetry at a low cost. This study reviewed different methods for satellite-derived bathymetry and selected the ratio transform method to apply to Landsat 8 imagery. Two images covered the northern coastal region of the Bay of Bengal. They were processed using a ratio-based algorithm calibrated with reference data. A hydrographic chart from the Bangladesh Navy depicted a general overview of the study area. Another chart from the BIWTA, along with GEBCO gridded bathymetry data, was used as reference data for the study. The ArcGIS and ENVI image processing software was used to process and analyze satellite imagery. The correlation between the satellite-derived bathymetry and reference data was also studied at the end of the study. The mean absolute deviation, mean squared error, and root mean square error were also evaluated. Both algorithms were able to extract bathymetry up to a depth of 12 meters with minimal errors. Satellite Derived Bathymetry (SDB) from the Central Coast resulted in an R-squared value of 0.82 with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) of 0.89. SDB from the Western Coast had R2 of 0.81 and MAD of 1.16. After interpolating the algorithm results, contour lines were also generated to visualize the bathymetry. The deviations and irregularities in the contours resulted due to the high turbidity of the coastal waters of the Bay of Bengal.
Pages 173-179
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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mjg.01.2024.26.37

ABSTRACT

APPRAISAL OF FLOOD-PRONE LITHO-STRATIGRAPHIC UNITS VIA GEO-ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Ndifreke I. Udosen, Aniekan M. Ekanem, Nyakno J. George

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2024.26.37

Geo-electrostratigraphic assessments of flood-laden lithological units within a coastal region in Southern Nigeria were undertaken with the use of geophysical surveys. The region has challenges of extreme flooding, especially during periods of high precipitation, leading to intensive water-logging and its associated problems. Integrated surveys employing vertical electrical soundings and electrical resistivity tomography were undertaken at twenty locations with the use of Schlumberger and Wenner array configurations. Hydro-geophysical findings indicate that the region comprises comprises four of four geo-electric layers: motley topsoil, sandy clay, fine sand, and coarse sand. Interpretation of the geo-stratigraphic data delineated degrees of geo-anisotropy based on measures of the longitudinal conductance, transverse resistance, longitudinal conductivity, transverse conductivity, anisotropic co-efficient, and the reflection coefficient. Via use of Dar-Zarrouk parameters, the water retention capacity assessments show that the region has a generally good retentive capacity, leading to an increased susceptibility to extreme flooding. Results obtained from 2D resistivity tomography surveys corroborated the results obtained from vertical electrical sounding data interpretations. The results showed that area is highly anisotropic, and that the presence of argillaceous sequences intercalated with arenaceous stratigraphic units is the leading cause of the high water retentive capacity of the region, leading to flooding during periods of high precipitation.
Pages 26-37
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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mjg.01.2024.17.25

ABSTRACT

GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SUBSOIL HAZARD DURING EARTH FILL DAM CONSTRUCTION

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Olabode Olabanji Olofinyo, Olabode Oluwaseun Franklin, Fatoyinbo Imoleayo Oluwatoyin, Oluremi Success Odebod, Damilola Tope Ogundele

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2024.17.25

The purpose of this investigation was to assess the suitability of the underlying soils for constructing an earth fill dam for irrigation purposes. Eight soil samples were collected from four trial pits and four borrow pits, and were subjected to physical, mechanical and strength performance tests which are natural moisture content, specific gravity, Atterberg limits, grain size analysis, compaction, consolidation, permeability, and triaxial shear strength. The liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) of the soil samples ranged from 33-46%, 22-32.5%, and 6.5-22.2%, respectively. The percentage of fines and coarse contents from the grain size analysis ranged from 7.1% to 52.4% and 44.4% to 91.4%, respectively. The maximum dry density (MDD) values of the soils ranged from 1630 to 2015 Kg/m3, while the optimum moisture content ranged from 9.9% to 27%. The coefficient of permeability (K) ranged from 1.452× 10-6 to 2.196950× 10-3 cm/s. The coefficient of volume compressibility (Cv) and consolidation (Mv) ranged from 0.00020 to 0.88 mm/yr and 0.18 to 144 MPa-1, respectively, and the angle of internal friction ranged from 24.30 to 35.40°. The results indicate that the underlying soils contain a significant amount of moisture due to climatic conditions. They are well-graded soils with low to intermediate plasticity. Clay minerals, specifically Kaolinite, are present and contribute to the low to medium swelling potential of the soils. The low hydraulic conductivity makes the soils suitable for the construction of an earth fill dam, and they exhibit good strength with low settlement potential for the engineering structure.
Pages 17-25
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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mjg.01.2024.10.16

ABSTRACT

ASSESSING SOIL EROSION IN MANDAKINI RIVER WATERSHED: A SUB-WATERSHED SCALE ANALYSIS USING RUSLE MODEL AND GEOSPATIAL TOOLS

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Neeraj Bohat and Varun Joshi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2024.10.16

Watershed are adversely affected by delectable land use land cover changes over the last two decades and these changes witnessed the soil loss in watershed. Soil weathering processes are induced by various factors like aggressive rainfall, hilly topography, land use land cover changes, less vegetation. Most of the watershed of Himalayan Rivers are being affected due to soil loss. The Mandakini River Watershed of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand has been affected by these soil accelerating components. The remote sensing and GIS can plays a vital role in identification of erosion vulnerable area for estimation of soil loss using revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) it provides an erosion scenario on sub-watershed scale. The RUSLE factors (R, K, LS, C and P) acquired using satellite based product and spatial technology. The rainfall map prepared from IMD gridded rainfall data, K-factor map retrieved from NBSS & LUP, Sentinel data and ALOSPALSAR DEM utilized for estimation of LS, C and P factors. All factors integrated in ArcGIS environment and soil loss map for year 2022 were prepared and categorized into 23 sub-watershed. This study classify the sub-watersheds based on various soil classes. Soil loss classified on five major classes where, out of 23 sub-watersheds (SW02, SW12, and SW23) classified in very high erosion category, five sub-watershed classified into high erosion class, two at moderate soil erosion class, and rest of thirteen sub-watersheds falls under less erosion risk. This study can helpful for policy makers and planners to take action for mitigation of natural resources.
Pages 10-16
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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mjg.01.2024.01.09

ABSTRACT

DELINEATION OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY IMAGING TECHNIQUES AT IBULE AKURE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

Journal: Malaysian Journal of Geosciences (MJG)
Author: Adeniyi Ariyo Emmanuel, Osisanya O. Wasiu, Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/mjg.01.2024.01.09

Population growth and heightened water demand in the study area, exacerbated by insufficient surface and groundwater resources, lead to severe water shortages, particularly during the dry season. In response, our study in Atibioke Street, Aule Road, Ibulesoro, Akure, Ondo State, employed Horizontal Profiling (HP) and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) with electrical resistivity methods. Conducted across three traverses at 5m intervals, with probing levels from 1 to 5, the Combined HP and VES generated 2-D pseudosections, highlighting features and conducive layers for groundwater accumulation. Using Schlumberger configuration with electrode spacings from 1 to 100 m, three Vertical Electrical Soundings classified subsurface layers into Topsoil, Weathered Layer, and Fresh Bedrock within the basement complex terrain. The study emphasized the significance of electrical resistivity in assessing groundwater potential, with recommendations highlighting the unsuitability of VES 1 and VES 2 for exploitation, while VES 3 exhibited favorable conditions. Overall groundwater potential was rated as medium, emphasizing the need for alternative water supply solutions. VES 3 was recommended for well drilling based on promising characteristics, concluding with a suggestion to use these findings as a reference for future geophysical investigations.
Pages 01-09
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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